Opal Formation

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Around 100 million years ago when dinosaurs roamed the earth unique geological and climatic phenomena began in what are now Australia's desert regions, making it home of up to 90% of the world's opal supply.


Opal Birth and the Lost Sea

Precious Opal is a rare gemstone found in very few locations around the world.

During the Cretaceous Period (144 to 65 million years ago), when dinosaurs roamed the earth, the forming Australian continent was covered by a shallow inland sea.  As the sea gradually receded, the desert sandstones were laid down, the edges of which are now roughly matched by the Great Artesian Basin.



These unique geological and climatic phenomena combined in our desert regions to make Australia home to the majority of the world's Opal supply.

plesiosaur2.jpgprocess_of_opalisation_pliosaur.jpgThe process of opalisation began about 30 million years ago in the mid Tertiary period. Deep weathering sent groundwater percolating through the petrified mud and sands of the ancient water courses. The water (which may have been hydrothermally forced upward from below) dissolved minerals and chemically transformed plant and animal cells thus releasing large quantities of soluble silica. The constant rise and fall of groundwater levels provided ample means for silica rich solutions to penetrate the ground. As it travelled along faults and joints in the sandstones, the silica rich solution became entrapped above impenetrable layers of clay and precipitated silica gel within cracks and voids. It occasionally replaced organic remains - shells, plant fragments and the bones of cretaceous marine creatures (including Pliosaurs & Plesiosaurs), that once lived in the prehistoric billabongs.



The interaction of enrichment and evaporation formed a silica gel which over several million years gradually hardened into opal. (Five tonnes of water would evaporate in order to create a five pound piece of Opal.) In most cases colourless opal (known as potch) was formed. However, in rare locations of Australia's outback, all colours of the rainbow spectrum were preserved and can be found in precious opal.

Scientific research & debate continues on the Genesis of Opal

Recent research into the deposition and genesis of Australian opals has been challenging the widely accepted scientific theory of a slow and gradual process of lamellar (layer upon layer) opal deposition over millions of years.

There is also conjecture as to the exact geological timing, when supersaturated silica solutions began the journey to becoming Opal, some older texts quote 60-100 million years as a base point. In more recent studies a complex ion exchange process that can be demonstrated under laboratory conditions shows that in geological terms Opal could have grown more rapidly, perhaps in as little as 2-3 million years.

The presence of aerobic microbial remains in opal has been the focus of studies suggesting bacteria act as a 'bio-reactor' resulting in enzymes and acids important in the formation of opal. This would suggest the opalisation process occurred quickly during the Early Cretaceous period, over 100 million years ago.

However that Precious Opal formed under very special conditions is agreed by all.

Formation of Queensland Boulder Opal

Although Opal is generally found as seams in sandstone, in remote outback Queensland, Opal occurs within the cavities of ironstone concretions known as 'Boulders'. The boulder host-rocks were formed by iron-rich chemical weathering, during the sedimentary deposition of the vast desert sandstones. Drying then produced shrinkage cracks which, along with other types of cavities and porosity traps were filled with silica bearing solutions during later alteration and silicification.

Some scientists believe that Opal formed via the silica laden fluids moving through the layers of subsurface strata under fault-generated hydraulic pressure and at temperatures greater than 100°C. The faults caused by tectonic processes, created pathways for fluids supersaturated by amorphous silica. This fluid, while under pressure, became entrapped. It cooled, gelled and hardened to form Opal.

Boulders are generally round, ellipsoidal and elongated shapes. They vary in appearance and range in size from an almond, to a discus (known as a ‘pancake') and can be as large as a huge tractor tyre (sandstone or 'sandy' boulders).

boulder_pancake.jpg Main level 'pancake' containing gem Black Boulder Opal
Active Image Main Level Boulder, just showing trace
ironstone_boulder_opal.jpg Numerous 'runners' - vertical veins to split into faces

Boulders vary from the coarser grained sandstone boulders to the denser fine-grained ironstone boulders; they display varying hues of chocolate brown and caramel resembling wood grain. Veins of Opal form in both horizontal and vertical cracks, radially or randomly arranged, within these concentrically textured host rocks.


In its mobile state the silica solution permeated and occupied the veins and joints within the boulder. Gradually the moisture content was reduced by evaporation to form a gel. Spheres of amorphous silica formed in this gel with the denser, larger spheres tending to sink to the bottom, and the smaller spheres tending to remain suspended near the top of the cavity surface. This sphere settling process produces the ‘stripey’ or 'anbanderas' pattern, commonly seen in Boulder Opal, as the spheres settle parallel to surface of the ground.

Deposits of silica as previously explained, as well as the replacement of woody tissue by silica, formed opal deposits of various kinds in Queensland.

Sources & Image Credits:

LETTERS TO ERIC, Judith Smith & Dr. Alex Ritchie, 1993.(diagram 1-3)

PHOTOS OF WINTON & SURROUNDS, Bruce Hutchinson 2006. (Dinosaur)

Postcards of the 'Moeraki Boulders' on the SE of the South Island New Zealand

THE Opaline COLLECTION, 2007. Photos: Mud Cracks & Rough Boulder Opals.

THE OPAL STORY: A GUIDEBOOK WITH COMPLIMENTARY DVD, Andrew & Damien Cody, 2008. (Deep Weathering, Syntectonic & Microbe Models)

'I'M AN IRONSTONE CONCRETION', adapted from Q. 'Am I a dinosaur egg? A.No I'm an ironstone concretion', at the Dinosaur Park, Queensland Museum Brisbane.


Sue-White opals29 June 2013
Dear Rainbow Serpent,
Thank you for your email and membership.
It is great to know that you are out there promoting Australia's National gemstone & NSW emblem.
Keep up the good work, I love your concept.
Sue White - Orana Glitz & Glamour Extravaganza Inc Assn.

15 march 2013
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Gemma Brady - Boundless productions.tv

Alexander fink.PhysicsPHD opal28 Nov 2012
I would like to welcome your information page on opal,
with detailed information about nearly everything their is to know in a general term.
Alexander Fink PhD - Dept. of Physics La Trobe University

5 August 2010
Hi from another opal lover.
Just wanted to say I love your site, a wealth of information.
I always send people to your page for opal info.
Kind Regards
Sean Tapner - Planet Opal

8 july 2010
Dear Rainbow Serpent,
Will be recommending your website as a primary reference to 15 Macquarie Uni media students who will be doing a PR project for us as part of their assessment soon.
Best wishes
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Opalminded recommend opalsinformation6 June 2010
Dear Rainbow Serpent, 
Greetings from Opal Minded In Sydney.
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We would love to share it with the visitors to our website. 
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Fri, Apr 16, 2010 
Good Morning,
I have just found your wonderful website.
I produce a monthly e-newsletter which is circulated to the Tourism businesses in Coober Pedy and neighbouring stations plus the Info Centres around SA & the NT.
I wondered if I could use some of your Opal info in my October Edition (Opal Month), mainly the parts in your “About Opal” section – names, spiritual info etc.
I would obviously reference it to your website noting the address so others could read your site. 
Sandra Harris
Tourism Officer - Coober Pedy Information Centre

5 April 2010
I am wanting to use your site in an assignment as it is a superb example
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Many thanks,